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Half a Century of Cell Lysis
Since the 1970s, Sonicators have been used to lyse many types of cells: mammalian cell culture, yeast, algae, bacteria, and more. Even gram-positive bacteria with their tough cell walls can be readily lysed with the powerful ultrasonic energy of a Sonicator. The ultrasonic energy output of each Sonicator model is adjustable and sonication parameters can be optimized according to your process requirements. Amplitude (intensity) can be lowered in order to gently process fragile cells, prevent organelles from being damaged or decrease degradation of enzymes. Amplitude can also be increased to powerful levels to process difficult cell types.
The choice of which Sonicator and probe size work best depends upon the sample volume range to be processed. Qsonica offers a variety of Sonicators and accessories which provides flexibility from the smallest laboratory applications to industrial volumes.
Publications and Protocols
Tips & Info for Cell Lysis
- For best results, cells should be relatively dispersed in the liquid volume prior to being homogenized with the Sonicator. While the Sonicator will disperse dense pellets, processing will be more uniform if starting from a dispersed cell solution.
- Do not over-process! The additional heat and energy from processing too long or at too high of an amplitude can reduce the quality of your sample for downstream experiments (by, for example, increasing protein denaturation or reducing RNA quality). When developing a protocol for cell lysis, the goal should be to find the lowest time and amplitude which will do the job well.
- Different types of cells will homogenize differently. Even the size of cells can impact your results. If you are changing from one type of cell to another, you may need to re-optimize your protocol unless the cells are very similar.
- Many biological molecules are heat sensitive. Be sure to homogenize on ice or use another cooling method. Also, make good use of the pulse function to allow time for the sample to cool during processing.
- With careful protocol optimization, it is possible to isolate intact organelles from lysed cells! See our organelle isolation page for more information.
- If you want to lyse organelles, you may need to increase the processing time or power. Generally, the smaller the organelle, the longer and / or more intense processing will be required to lyse them.
- For general best practices, see Best Practices for Ultrasonic Homogenization.
Cell Lysis Publications and Protocols
DNA-PKcs kinase activity stabilizes the transcription factor Egr1 in activated immune cells
Zachary J Waldrip, Lyle Burdine, et al., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 2021
Lysine Demethylase KDM4A Associates with Translation Machinery and Regulates Protein Synthesis
Van Rechem et.al., AACR Cancer Discovery 2015, Volume 5, 255-263 DOI: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-14-1326
Drug resistance reversed by silencing LIM domain-containing protein 1 expression in colorectal carcinoma
Chen et.al., Oncology Letters 2014, Volume 8, 795-798 DOI: 10.3892/ol.2014.2155
Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the organophosphorus hydrolase OPHC2 from Pseudomonaspseudoalcaligenes
Gothard et.al., Acta Crystallographica, Volume F69, 73-76, December 2012
High cell density cultivation of a recombinant Escherichia coli strain expressing a 6-O-sulfotransferase for theproduction of bioengineered heparin
Zhang et.al., Journal of Applied Microbiology 2014, Volume 118, 92-98
Crystal structure of O-methyltransferase CalO6 from the calicheamicin Biosynthetic pathway: a case of challenging structure determination at low resolution
Tsodikov et. al., BMC Structural Biology, Vol 15:13, 2015
Nucleic acid and protein extraction from electropermeabilized E. coli cells on a microfluidic chip
Matos et. al., Analyst, 2013, Volume 138, pp 7347-7353
Develpment of a genetic tool for functional screening of anti-malarial bioactive extracts in metagenomics libraries
Mongui et. al., Malaria Journal (2015) 14:233; DOI 10.1186/s12936-015-0748-6
Identification and Molecular Characterization of YsaL(Ye3555): A Novel Negative Regulator of YsaN ATPase in Type Three Secretion System of Enteropathogenic Bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica
Chatterjee et. al., PLOS ONE, Volume 8, Issue 10, October 2013
High-throughput preparation methods of crude extract for robust cell-free protein synthesis
Kwon, et.al., Scientific Reports, Volume 5: 8663, 1-8, March 2015 DOI: 10.1038/srep08663
Engineering Hydrogen Gas Production from Formate in a Hyperthermophile By Heterologus Production of an 18-Subunit Membrane-bound Complex
Lipscomb et. al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, Volume 289(5): 2873-2879, January 31, 2014
Discontinued Models (e.g. S-4000, S-3000)
A Novel CalB-Type Lipose Discovered by Fungal Genomes Mining
Vaquero et. al., PLOS ONE 10(4): e0124882, 2015; doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124882